Date Submitted: 21/06/2024 04:19 PM



Industrial factory electrical system is a system that provides and distributes electrical energy to equipment and machinery participating in the production, business and service processes. This system not only ensures a stable and continuous power source but also builds a safe, economical, and high-performance power transmission system to serve all industrial activities. Therefore, businesses need to clearly understand the components of the system as well as the design and construction steps. Join Hung Nghiep Phu to learn about the article below to clearly understand the electrical system of industrial factories!

    1. What is an industrial factory electrical system?  

          An industrial factory electrical system is a system that provides and distributes electrical energy to equipment and machinery involved in the production, business, and service processes. This system not only ensures a stable and continuous power source but also builds a safe, economical, and high-performance power transmission system to serve all industrial activities.

    2. Structure of industrial factory electrical system

    Industrial plant electrical systems consist of many different components. Basically, they are divided into 3 main types: heavy electrical systems, light electrical systems and lighting systems.

    2.1. Heavy electrical system of industrial factory
            The most important part of an industrial plant's electrical system is the heavy electrical system. Heavy electrical system includes: Electrodynamic system and control electrical system. Power is taken from transformer stations, through the main power cable system to electrical cabinets and distributed to areas, machinery and equipment in the factory.

          Heavy electrical systems of industrial plants often use 3-phase electricity, 380V voltage and include the following components:

    - Transformer station system, medium and low voltage cabinets: are the first necessary elements of the heavy electrical system of an industrial plant. The transformer station plays the role of taking electricity from large capacity lines and converting it to a suitable power supply for use in industrial plants. In addition to the transformer station, the factory also needs medium and low voltage electrical cabinets to divide electricity into separate circuits for each area and each individual device.

    Trạm biến áp cho khu công nghiệp, nhà máy
    (Transformer station for industrial parks and factories; source: Internet)

    - Generator system, switchgear: are the next necessary components of the factory's heavy electrical system. The generator is a power backup device for the factory when the power grid system has a problem, helping to ensure that the factory's operations can still take place. The switch plays a role in ensuring that production is stable and uninterrupted when the power supply is unstable.

    Máy phát điện công nghiệp được sử dụng cho nhà máy
    (Industrial generators are used in industrial parks and large factories; source: Internet)

    - Distribution electrical cabinet system: is the place to install and protect electrical switchgear and control equipment in the factory. From the electrical cabinet system, electricity will be distributed to each area and each machine and equipment in the factory. In addition, the electrical cabinet system also isolates electricity users from electrical equipment, ensuring safety for workers and employees working in the factory.

    Hệ thống tủ điện phân phối trong nhà máy công nghiệp
    (Electrical cabinet distribution system in the factory, source: Internet)

    - Machinery control cabinet system: Used to control machines and equipment in industrial factories. More specifically, the control cabinet will be responsible for providing power to the motor, controlling the motor to start or end the working cycle. Besides, it will also monitor and protect the engines from problems.

    Tủ điện điều khiển có vai trò điều khiển máy móc và thiết bị trong nhà máy
    (Electrical control cabinets have the role of controlling machinery and equipment in the factory, source: Internet)

    - Socket system: is a bridge that shares power from the power source to devices that use electricity. Unlike regular residential electrical sockets, industrial socket systems in factories are often equipped with waterproof covers, waterproof jackets and fuses to ensure safety when unexpected situations occur.

    Ổ cắm điện công nghiệp dùng trong nhà máy
    (Industrial power sockets used in factories, source: Internet)

    - Grounding system: is the solution to the problem of electric leakage, ensuring safety for employees and workers working in the factory. This system usually consists of two parts: an electrode buried underground and a ground wire connected from the parts that need to be grounded to the ground rod.

    - Lightning protection system: protects the factory from impact when struck by lightning. The lightning protection system will attract lightning strikes to it and then safely transfer the electricity generated by the lightning strike to the ground, preventing lightning rays from traveling along the industrial plant's electrical system, causing large-scale damage.

    2.2. Light electrical system of industrial factory

           The light power system supports communication, monitoring and improving the quality of work in the factory, providing electricity for management, inspection, supervision and daily activities in the factory. Light electrical system includes: Internet network, alarm system, surveillance camera system, domestic electrical system,...

           The main function is to support management, inspection, supervision activities and provide facilities for workers to perform work.

    Hệ thống mạng LAN & Internet là một phần không thể thiếu trong nhà máy công nghiệp
    (LAN & Internet systems are an indispensable part of industrial factories, source: Internet)

    The light electrical system is not a main component in the industrial plant's electrical system and accounts for a fairly small proportion (only 10% to 20%). However, it is responsible for operating high-tech equipment systems, creating convenience for users. The light electrical system in the factory includes:

    • LAN & Internet system: is the foundation that helps connect computer systems in the factory together. Through LAN and Internet systems, businesses will be able to use other high-tech equipment such as telephone switchboards, camera systems, printers, fax machines, etc.
    • Switchboard and telephone system: are tools to support the factory's production and business activities. Through this system, communication between departments and areas in the factory takes place faster and easier.
    • Camera system: for factories is one of the measures to protect assets and ensure security. Especially for industrial parks and factories with large areas, the camera system will help monitor every corner and area and image documents can also be stored for a long time.
      Public audio system: is a component of the factory's electrical system that will help managers make announcements and information to employees more easily. Because the factory is a large area and has a lot of noise coming from machinery and production systems, the sound system is extremely important.
       Access control system: is a means of ensuring safety and security for the factory. Through the access control system, industrial factory owners can know detailed access times, access locations and identities of each employee and customer. Thereby, security, order and safety are also guaranteed.

    2.3. Electrical lighting system in industrial factory
           The lighting system provides lighting for the office area and the entire factory. Engineers need to rely on basic principles of target lighting level, lighting efficiency, light quality, color temperature, etc. to design the most suitable lighting system for the factory.

    Đèn chiếu sáng sự cố cho nhà máy
    (Emergency lighting for factories, source: Internet)

    The electrical lighting system in industrial factories includes flexible lighting systems and emergency lighting systems.

    • Flexible lighting system: properly designed and installed will help workers observe more easily, thereby improving work productivity. In addition to technical standards, the factory lighting system also needs to ensure safety, energy saving and environmental friendliness.
    • Emergency lighting system: also known as emergency lighting system. This system is used for lighting purposes when an incident occurs in an industrial factory and is required to comply with state fire prevention standards.

    3. Process of designing and constructing industrial plant electrical systems
    Industrial factory electrical systems need to be designed and constructed carefully and carefully according to technical standards. This is both to ensure the safety of employees and to ensure that production work goes smoothly.

    Step 1: Determine the calculated load.

    This is the step to calculate the total power consumption of all equipment and machinery in the factory at the same time. This is a necessary step for engineers to choose suitable equipment for the factory's electrical system.

    Step 2: Design a high-voltage power network for the factory.

    The high-voltage power network plays the role of conducting electricity from the national grid to the factory. Therefore, the high voltage electrical network must be calculated and shown in detail in the design. From there, engineers will know how to arrange and arrange high voltage lines, transformer stations and distribution cabinets appropriately.

    Thảo luận và tính toán chi tiết để thiết kế hệ thống phù hợp nhất
    (Illustration photo, source: Internet)

    Step 3: Design a low-voltage electrical network for the factory.

    Low-voltage power networks have voltages less than 1kV. The design of the low-voltage electrical network for the factory is to properly arrange the control cabinets, specifically arrange the wiring, and position the low-voltage electrical network.

    Step 4: Design the factory lighting system.

    Arranging the lighting system properly is also an important step in the process of building an industrial factory's electrical system. The number of lights must not be too small, which will affect production, but also not too many, which will cause waste of electricity and supplies.

    Step 5: Calculate and design capacity compensation.

    This will help the factory minimize power loss, increase working efficiency and prolong the life of equipment and machinery.

    4. Things to keep in mind when installing industrial factory electrical systems

    When designing and installing industrial plant electrical systems, engineers should note the following:

    • Ensure the safety of the electrical system for users and machines and equipment in the factory.
    • Commitment to the operating efficiency of the system, machinery operating at full capacity, other equipment operating smoothly, effectively supporting production, management, etc.
    • Follow the installation process, correct technique, step by step sequence and complete equipment.
    • Save maximum operating costs, do not waste electricity.
    • Meets national standards for industrial electrical system design and construction.

    The factory electrical system contributes to ensuring the stable and efficient operation of the industrial plant, providing power for operations, helping to save costs, protect safety and improve product quality. Hope Hung Nghiep Phu has brought you useful information with this article. Contact Hung Nghiep Phu Construction Investment Co., Ltd. for advice today!



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